Travelogues

Chaozhou Kaiyuan Temple 開元寺

Visited Chaozhou during a root-searching trip with the family. One of the must visit in Chaozhou is the 1300 year old temple, Kaiyuan Temple.

L2M-CN-1909-KAIYUAN-21After ascending the throne in 713, Emperor Xuanzong issued the decree building “Kaiyuan Temples” which was named after his reign title “Kaiyuan” (開元) in each prefecture of the Tang Empire (618–907). Through the rise and fall in the Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties, most of the present structures of Kaiyuan Temple still preserves the original appearance include several national treasures.

L2M-CN-1909-KAIYUAN-1開元寺位於廣東省潮州市開元路。前身為荔峰寺,始建於唐代開元二十六年(738年),元代改為「開元萬壽禪寺」,明代稱:「開元鎮國禪寺」,又稱」鎮國開元禪寺」,加額「萬壽宮」,俗稱開元寺一直沿用至今。向為歷朝祝福君主、宣講官府律令之所。以地方寬敞、殿閣壯觀、聖像莊嚴、文物眾多、香火鼎盛而名聞遐邇,為粵東地區第一古剎,有「百萬人家福地,三千世界叢林」之美譽。

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整座寺院保留了唐代平面佈局,又凝結了宋、元、明、清各個不同朝代的建築藝術,香火鼎盛。 「文革」期間,開元寺曾遭嚴重破壞,1982年海外僑胞、港澳同胞捐資,進行全面維修,使開元寺重現昔日風采

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開元寺前身為荔峰寺,始建於唐代開元二十六年(738年)。元代稱為開元萬壽禪寺。明、清時期重建,明代稱為開元鎮國禪寺,清代以後開元鎮國禪寺與開元寺並稱,俗稱開元寺並沿用至今。開元寺建立以來,歷代均有維修,原佔地100畝,現存20.3畝,保留了唐代平面佈局,又凝結了宋、元、明、清各個不同朝代的建築藝術,香火鼎盛。

2001年06月25日,潮州開元寺作為唐至清時期古建築,被國務院批准列入第五批全國重點文物保護單位名單。

Architect 建築風格

 

Along the central axis are the Shanmen, Four Heavenly Kings Hall, Mahavira Hall and Buddhist Texts Library. The other buildings include Dabei Hall, Taifo Hall, abbot’s hall, dining hall, wing-rooms, etc.

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開元寺規模龐大,肅穆壯觀,是一組較完整的唐代建築群。其山門外照壁,嵌有「梵天香界」石刻。全寺內分四進,分別為金剛殿、天王殿、大雄寶殿、藏經樓。東西有廊廳,縱深60余米,建有觀音閣、六祖堂、地藏閣、住持廳等

Four Heavenly Kings Hall 金剛殿

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Four Heavenly Kings’ statues are enshrined in the left and right side of the Four Heavenly Kings Hall.

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  • Eastern Dhṛtarāṣṭra (持國天王) :  Dhṛtarāṣṭra wears white clothes and armor and has pipa, a Chinese plucked string musical instrument, in his hand).
  • Southern Virūḍhaka (增長天王) : Virūḍhaka wears blue clothes with a sword in his hand).

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  • Western Virūpākṣa (廣目天王) : Virūpākṣa wears red clothes with a dragon or a snake wrapped around his arm).
  • Northern Vaiśravaṇa (多聞天王) :  Vaiśravaṇa wears green clothes with a precious umbrella in his right hand and a silver sacred mouse in his left hand). In this particular manifestation, Vaiśravaṇa is represented by 李靖 Li Jing holding a pagoda in his arm.

The Four Heavenly Kings are said to live in Mount Meru and their task is to protect the world in their direction respectively.

Mahavira Hall 大雄寶殿

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Mahavira Hall 大雄寶殿

The Mahavira Hall (大雄寶殿)enshrining the statues of Sakyamuni (middle), Amitabha (west) and Bhaisajyaguru (east). The statues of Eighteen Arhats stand on both sides of the hall.

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Mahavira Hall 大雄寶殿

其主體建築大雄寶殿建在高出地面的台基上,面闊5間,進深4間,重檐歇山頂,殿脊以葫蘆、雉尾為裝飾。大殿和殿台四周的石欄板上,嵌有唐代石刻78塊,敷演釋迦牟尼的生平事跡,並刻有猴子蓮花等動植物圖案。殿前有1對石經幢上鐫《准提咒》和《尊生兒》。

Great Compassion Hall 大悲殿

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Great Compassion Hall 大悲殿

The Babei Hall (大悲殿; ‘Great Compassion Hall’) was built in 2005. The construction took five years, and lasted from 2000 to 2005. It is 30-metre (98 ft) wide, 12.85-metre (42.2 ft) high with a depth of 25-metre (82 ft). The hall covers a building area of 1,600-square-metre (17,000 sq ft) and the total area of 3,800-square-metre (41,000 sq ft). Under the eaves is a plaque with the Chinese characters “Dabei Hall” written by Hong Kong sinologist Jao Tsung-I. A total of 86 statues of Guanyin are enshrined in the hall.

 

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大悲殿在開元寺東側 (文革時這裡曾成了小商品市場和群眾電影院)重檐歇山,紅牆碧瓦,面闊30米,進深25米,(連脊)高12?85米,總面積3800平方米,建築面積約1600平方米。工程造價3300萬元,海內外善信捐資900萬元,開元寺自籌2400萬元。殿身面寬5間,進深4間,面積800平方米。山門、迴廊、僧捨等建築面積800平方米。

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匾額「大悲殿」 饒宗頤教授所書

匾額「大悲殿」,為香港國際潮學大師饒宗頤教授所書。殿外周牆10幅青石浮雕、通雕和圓雕,其內容是《觀經》里234個佛經故事,殿周有18根蟋龍大青石柱,薈萃了佛教文化特色和地方建築、雕刻藝術,豐富了開元寺的景觀,又為海內外信眾和廣大遊客提供了一個新的朝拜觀光的勝地。

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觀世音菩薩

開元寺大悲殿內供奉的86尊應身化像,是國內第一座供奉86尊漢白玉觀世音菩薩大悲化身像的殿閣,是國內佛教漢白玉觀世音化身像最多的殿閣。

大悲殿的藝術裝飾,風格古樸敦厚,造型秀美,色彩絢麗,體現了佛教文化的內涵以及地方傳統技藝,是古人智慧與現代智慧相結合的結晶。

Sutra Hall (Buddhist Texts Library) 藏經閣

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Sutra Hall 藏經閣

寺內的藏經樓至今還保存著8大櫥乾隆欽賜的雍正版《大藏經》7240卷,內有漢、番、梵對照本,還有木刻印刷的佛教故事、連環圖卷,其數量之多,資料之全,為國內寺院所罕見。

藏經樓中,珍藏著清代乾隆年間《龍藏》一部,系當時年居八十高齡的開元寺方丈靜會法師餐風飲露,步霜踏雪,歷盡艱難險阻,跨越萬水千山,晉京所請,共7240卷,分裝在724函中,當年只印100部,迄今完整保存下來的已屈指可數。1987年國家文物局和國家出版署批准重印「龍藏」,因乾隆下詔撤毀部分經版和經書,致全書殘缺不全,為補齊全書,文物出版社派員走訪全國十多個省區尋找底本,以補缺損,最後在這裡找到被乾隆毀版的四函經書,得以補版,足見其珍貴之極。

寺中還有智誠法師抗日戰爭期間閉關三年刺舌血書寫的《大方廣佛華嚴經》一部,八十餘萬字,字字端楷,一絲不苟。時人贊曰:「三年般若心參透,一部華嚴血寫成。」

Hall of Kshitigarbha 地藏閣

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Hall of Kshitigarbha 地藏閣

Due to Shakyamuni Buddha’s exhortations, Kṣitigarbha has to cultivate all the living creatures in adherence to the Dharma and eliminate all suffering in the period spanning from Shakyamuni’s Parinirvana to Maitreya’s final birth. Kṣitigarbha has made the vow:

“Until the hells are empty (of suffering beings), I will not become a Buddha.”
(「地獄不空,誓不成佛。」)
“Once all sentient beings are saved, I will attain Buddhahood.”
(「眾生度盡,方證菩提。」)
“If I do not descend into hell, who will?”
(「我不入地獄,誰入地獄?」)

It is through this gesture of selflessness that he became recognised as “foremost in compassion and vows” and has been worshiped by people since ancient times.

Historical Artifacts 歷史文物

Stone Pillars 石經幢

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Stone Pillars 石經幢

Kaiyuan Temple houses four stone pillars (石經幢), they were made in the Tang dynasty (618–907). They are decorated with relief carvings of the Buddha, lotus petals, Hercules, Buddhist texts, and other designs.

開元寺唐宋元明清民國歷代文物,經文革十年劫難,大量被毀,而所存仍然甚富:天王殿、大雄寶殿前四座石經幢,分別為5米8層、7米25層,由石雕構件迭砌而成,乃開元寺始建時所造,已歷一千二百餘年,雖石表嚴重剝蝕、圖象斑駁,但其線條明快、手法凝煉的雕刻如力士、覆蓮、雙龍奪寶等圖案以及《准提咒》、《尊勝咒》及梵文尚隱約可見。

Stone Banisters 欄楯和月台圍欄

 

The banisters of the Mahavira Hall are carved with stories of Sakyamuni’s becoming monk and other patterns, they were made in the Tang dynasty (618–907).

L2M-CN-1909-KAIYUAN-1111大雄寶殿前欄楯和殿前月台圍欄78塊,分別雕刻「釋迦牟尼出家」、「白馬窬城」、「青山斷發」等佛教故事;珍禽異獸、奇花異草,觸目皆是。欄正中「佛日增輝,法輪常轉;皇風永扇,帝道遐昌」的石刻大欄板,每字如鬥大,也是唐代佛教藝術文物。

Bronze Bell 大銅鐘

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The bronze bell which is 1.7-metre (5 ft 7 in) high and 1.05-metre (3 ft 5 in) in circumference is the symbol of Kaiyuan Temple, weighs more than 1,500-kilogram (3,300 lb). It was cast in 1114 in the reign of Emperor Huizong of Northern Song dynasty.

殿內東側懸掛著重三千餘斤、高1.7米,口沿105公分的大銅鐘,是宋代政和四年三月(1114年)潮州金剛經社鑄造供奉開元寺的,鐘面平滑,工藝精良,無砂眼鑄痕,歷數百年天天撞擊,至今仍音聲悠揚,完好如新。

Incense Burner 大香爐

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Kaiyuan Temple collected two Xianglu (香爐; ‘Incense burner’). One was cast by Korean monk in the Kaiyuan period (713–741) of Tang dynasty (618–907). The other was cast in 1325 by Yuan dynasty (1271–1368) politician Xu Zhenjin (徐震謹).

L2M-CN-1909-KAIYUAN-1112文物室中陳列著元代泰定二年(1325年)似隕石雕就的大香爐,六層圓形,高1.4米,重950斤,底層以八個獸頭作爐腳,第二層呈八稜形,分別雕刻八幅梅花鹿動物浮雕,三層、五層分別雕覆蓮瓣,巧妙銜接呈球狀的第四層金束腰,第六屠為爐體最上層,呈正圓形口沿,宣徑達84公分,口沿邊高18公分。上刻飛天圖紋浮雕,爐口陰刻銘文:「大元泰定二年,歲次乙醜二月八日奉政大夫連州知州兼農事徐震謹捨石香爐一座入於潮州路開元萬壽禪寺永充供養」。整座香爐設計獨特,線條流暢,素有「天上的材料,人間的工藝」之稱。

Stone Manuscripts 碑記石刻

 

Embedded into the walls along the corridors of the temple are century-old inscriptions of royal and imperial sponsors of the temple.

寺內牆壁各處,鑲嵌著眾多官府文告和歷代開元寺重修碑記石刻。1961年被確定為廣東省重點文物保護單位,1983年被國務院確定為全國重點開放大寺。

 

 

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